Git Tips and Tricks

9 minute read

Initialization configuration

git config --global "username"
git config --global "mail"
git config --global colur.ui true
git config --global core.editor 
git config --global status
git config --global checkout
git config --global branch
git config --global commit
git config --global "log --graph --decorate --pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit --all"
git config --global alias.mylog "log --pretty=format:'%h %s [%an]' --graph"
git config --global alias.changes "show --stat --oneline --name-status"
git config --global push.default current
git config --list
git config --global credential.helper cache

mkdir ~/Documents/gitStore
cd ~/Documents/gitStore

git init

Make some file

git add

Add everything in all the project in the staging area

git add --all

Take a snapshot of everything in the staging area

git commit -m "a message"
git log

Add all txt files in the current directory

git add *.txt 

Add all files in the docs directory

git add docs/ 

Add all txt files in the entire project

git add "*.txt"

Get the differences of files now from repository

git diff
git add --all
git diff --staged
git reset HEAD <file>
git commit -a -m "modify something"

Undoing the last commit, put changes into staging

git reset --soft HEAD^

Undoing the last commit and all the changes

git reset --hard HEAD^

Undoing the last 2 commits and all the changes

git reset --hard HEAD^^

Add to the last commit, (change the last commit)

git add test.txt
git commit --amend -m "this message will overwrite "

Add remote repo(remote repository name is “origin”)

git remote add origin remoteGit
git remote -v

Local branch we want to push is master

git push -u origin master

To pull changes from the remote

git pull 

To add new remote

git remote add <name> <address>

To remove remote

git remote rm <name>

To push to remotes

git push -u <name> <branch>

Don’t do these after you push, because these change history

git reset --soft HEAD^
git commit --amend -m "new message"
git reset --hard HEAD^
git reset --hard HEAD^^ 

Cloning a repository

git clone <url-of-repo> <local-folder>

To create some branch

git branch cat

To see what branch we are in

git branch

To jump to the new branch

git checkout branch

To merge branches

git checkout master
git merge branch

Branch cleanup

git branch -d branch

Create and checkout to a branch at once

git checkout -b admin

List all remote branches

git branch -r

Remote show

git remote show origin

Removing a branch (remote)

git push origin :<branch_name>

Removing a branch localy

git branch -d <branch_name> 

If you have unmerged commits, it returns errors

Removing a branch localy (with force)

git branch -D <branch_name>

To clean up deleted remote branches

git remote prune origin

Add remote branches

First, you must create your branch locally

git checkout -b your-branch

After that, you can work locally in your branch, when you are ready to share the branch, push it. The next command push the branch to the remote repository origin and tracks it:

git push -u origin your-branch

Teammates can reach your branch, by doing:

git fetch
git checkout origin/your-branch

You can continue working in the branch and pushing whenever you want without passing arguments to git push (argumentless git push will push the master to remote master, your-branch local to remote your-branch, etc…)

To fetch all remote branches:

git fetch --all

To change local branch to a track a remote branch (after fetching it from remote):

git checkout -b local-branch origin/remote-branch

List all tags

git tag

Add a new tag

git tag -a v0.0.3 -m "version 0.0.3"

Checkout code at commit

git checkout <tag_name>

To push new tags

git push --tags

Alternative way to merge two branches (admin is another branch)

git checkout admin
git rebase master
git checkout master
git merge admin

Important commands in rebase when facing conflicts

git rebase --continue
get rebase --skip
git rebase --abort

Change log format

git log --pretty=format:"%h %ad- %s [%an]"

place holders: %h - SHA hash %ad - author date %an - author name %s - subject %d - ref names

To get a detailed log

git log --oneline -p
git log --oneline --stat
git log --oneline --graph
git log --until=1.minute.ago
git log
git log --since=1.hour.ago
git log --since=1.month.ago --until=2.weeks.ago
git log --since=2000-01-01 --until=2012-12-21

To get differences in commits

git diff
git diff HEAD
git diff HEAD^
git diff HEAD^^
git diff HEAD~5
git diff HEAD^..HEAD

Between 2 specific commits

git diff <sha1> <sha2>

Get sha of each commit

git log --oneline

Get differences between 2 branches

git diff master admin

To see history of a file commits

git blame <filename> --date short

Remove a file from git (also removing from disk)

git rm <filename>

Stop a file from tracking (not removing from disk)

git rm --cached <filename>

Tell git to ignore some files create a file named: .gitignore edit the file:

vim .gitignore:

Add it to the repo so every body will have it.

git add .gitignore
git commit -m "Ignore all log files"

How to view the differences between two commits

git diff *commit_id1* *commit_id2*

How to view the differences between two commits (name of files only)

git diff --name-only *commit_id1* *commit_id2*

How to view the differences between two commits with stats

Statsbash: number of insertions and deletions:

git diff --stat *commit_id1* *commit_id2*

To see the changes done by a commit

Copybash the first four or more characters of the commit ID with this command:

# if the commit id is : 27c0f0ce1340dkljadlk...
git show 27c0

Modify a specific commit

# If the commit is the Z-th commit before the HEAD then,
git rebase -i HEAD~Z  #Shows the last Z commits in a text editor
# Modify pick to edit/e in the line mentioning the specific commit
# Edit your changes
git commit --am 
git rebase --continue

Deal with “old mode 100755 new mode 100644” message

Ignore filemode in current git repo:

git config core.filemode false

You can also apply the settings globally. See here. However, if you do want to stage the file modes, see the next item.

Stage an executable bit change or file mode

If you need to stage an executable bit change, you should do something like:

git update-index --chmod=(+|-)x <path>

Git submodules

# Adding a submodule
git submodule add <submodule-url>

# Cloning a repo with its submodule(s)
git clone --recurse-submodules <repo-url>

# Pulling in upstream changes from the submodules remote
git submodule update --remote

# Pulling in upstream changes from a specific submodule remote
# Submodule names can be found in the local file .gitmodules
git submodule update --remote <submodule-name>

# When you have submodules, everytime you checkout a tag in the 
# parent repo,  you should update the submodules as well to make
# sure that their heads point to the correct commit.
git checkout <tag_name>
git submodule update

More information.

Fork a public repo to a private one

Assume you want to fork a repo named oldRepo on Github and make it private.

# 1. Create an empty repo on Github (e.g. newRepo)

# 2. Clone the old repo locally
git clone --recursive (url of oldRepo)
cd oldRepo

# 3. (Optional) Fetch all other information
git fetch --all

# 4. (Optional) Create local branches for all remote ones
for remote in `git branch -r`; do git branch --track ${remote#origin/} $remote; done

# 5. Push to the newRepo
git push --mirror (url to newRepo)

# 6. (Optional) You can give the newRepo upstream a name
git remote add (newRepo upstream) (newRepo url)

# 7. Push all other info
git push --all (newRepo upstream)

# 8. (Optional) Set default push behavior
git push (newRepo upstream) -u (localBranch)

# Check the remote branches and upstreams
git remote -v
git branch -r

# 9. (Optional) Disable "push" to the oldRepo upstream
git remote set-url --push (oldRepo upstream) DISABLE

# 10. (Optional) Update the newRepo with the oldRepo changes
git fetch (oldRepo upstream)
git rebase (oldRepo upstream)/master
# Then resolve any conflicts

See here and there for more information.